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Morocco

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Politics

Morocco was an authoritarian regime according to the Democracy Index of 2014. The Freedom of the Press 2014 report gave it a rating of "Not Free". This has improved since however and in 2017 Morocco was upgraded to being a "hybrid regime" according to the Democracy Index in 2017 and while the Freedom of the Press report in 2017 continued to find that Morocco's press continued to be "not free " it gave "partly free" ratings for its "Net Freedom" and "Freedom in the World" more generally. Following the March 1998 elections a coalition government headed by opposition socialist leader Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government was the first ever government drawn primarily from opposition parties and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialists left-of-centre and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Saadeddine Othmani. The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with a Parliament and an independent judiciary. With the 2011 constitutional reforms the King of Morocco retains less executive powers whereas those of the prime minister have been enlarged. The constitution grants the king honorific powers (among other powers); he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers; appoints the Prime Minister from the political party that has won the most seats in the parliamentary elections and on recommendations from the latter appoints the members of the government. The constitution of 1996 theoretically allowed the king to terminate the tenure of any minister and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies to dissolve the Parliament suspend the constitution call for new elections or rule by decree. The only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Legislative branch Since the constitutional reform of 1996 the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis an-Nuwwâb/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five-year term 295 elected in multi-seat constituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members elected for a nine-year term elected by local councils (162 seats) professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). The Parliament's powers though still relatively limited were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 and even further in the 2011 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters approving bills questioning ministers and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government's actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence. The latest parliamentary elections were held on October 12 2016. Voter turnout in these elections was estimated to be 43% of registered voters. Military Morocco's military consists of the Royal Armed Forces—this includes the Army (the largest branch) the Navy the Air Force the Royal Guard the Royal Gendarmerie and the Auxiliary Forces. Internal security is generally effective and acts of political violence are rare (with one exception the 2003 Casablanca bombings which killed 45 people ). The UN maintains a small observer force in Western Sahara where a large number of Morocco's troops are stationed. The Saharawi group Polisario maintains an active militia of an estimated 5 000 fighters in Western Sahara and has engaged in intermittent warfare with Moroccan forces since the 1970s. Foreign relations Morocco is a member of the United Nations and belongs to the African Union (AU) Arab League Arab Maghreb Union (UMA) Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) the Non-Aligned Movement and the Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN_SAD). Morocco's relationships vary greatly between African Arab and Western states. Morocco has had strong ties to the West in order to gain economic and political benefits. France and Spain remain the primary trade partners as well as the primary creditors and foreign investors in Morocco. From the total foreign investments in Morocco the European Union invests approximately 73.5% whereas the Arab world invests only 19.3%. Many countries from the Persian Gulf and Maghreb regions are getting more involved in large-scale development projects in Morocco. Morocco was the only African state not to be a member of the African Union due to its unilateral withdrawal on 12 November 1984 over the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic in 1982 by the African Union (then called Organisation of African Unity) as a full member without the organisation of a referendum of self-determination in the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Morocco rejoined the AU on 30 January 2017. A dispute with Spain in 2002 over the small island of Perejil revived the issue of the sovereignty of Melilla and Ceuta. These small enclaves on the Mediterranean coast are surrounded by Morocco and have been administered by Spain for centuries. Morocco has been given the status of major non-NATO ally by the US government. Morocco was the first country in the world to recognise US sovereignty (in 1777). Morocco is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. Western Sahara status Due to the conflict over Western Sahara the status of the Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro regions is disputed. The Western Sahara War saw the Polisario Front the Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement battling both Morocco and Mauritania between 1976 and a ceasefire in 1991 that is still in effect. A United Nations mission MINURSO is tasked with organizing a referendum on whether the territory should become independent or recognised as a part of Morocco. Part of the territory the Free Zone is a mostly uninhabited area that the Polisario Front controls as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Its administrative headquarters are located in Tindouf Algeria. As of 2006[update] no UN member state has recognised Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara. In 2006 the government of Morocco has suggested autonomous status for the region through the Moroccan Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS). The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. The proposal was encouraged by Moroccan allies such as the United States France and Spain. The Security Council has called upon the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution. Administrative divisions Morocco is officially divided into 12 regions which in turn are subdivided into 62 provinces and 13 prefectures. Regions Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima Oriental Fès-Meknès Rabat-Salé-Kénitra Béni Mellal-Khénifra Casablanca-Settat Marrakech-Safi Drâa-Tafilalet Souss-Massa Guelmim-Oued Noun Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab Human rights During the early 1960s to the late 1980s under the leadership of Hassan II Morocco had one of the worst human rights record in both Africa and the world. Government repression of political dissent was widespread during Hassan II's leadership until it dropped sharply in the mid-1990s. The decades previous to this time are called the Years of Lead (Les Années de Plomb) and included forced disappearances assassinations of government opponents and protesters and secret internment camps such as Tazmamart. To examine the abuses committed during the reign of King Hassan II (1961–1999) the government has set up an Equity and Reconciliation Commission (IER). According to Human Rights Watch annual report 2016 Moroccan authorities restricted the rights to peaceful expression association and assembly through several laws. The authorities continue to prosecute both printed and online media which criticizes the government or the king (or the royal family). There are also persistent allegations of violence against both Sahrawi pro-independence and pro-Polisario demonstrators in Western Sahara; a disputed territory which is occupied by and considered by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. Morocco has been accused of detaining Sahrawi pro-independence activists as prisoners of conscience. Homosexual acts as well as pre-marital sex are illegal in Morocco and can be punishable by six months to three years of imprisonment. It is illegal to proselytise for any religion other than Islam (article 220 of the Moroccan Penal Code) and that crime is punishable by a maximum of 15 years of imprisonment. Violence against women and sexual harassment have been criminalized. The penalty can be from one month to five years with fines ranging from $200 to $1 000. As of 24 May 2020 hundreds of Moroccan migrant workers are trapped in Spain. Although they have continuously asked the government to let them back into the country they have been refused. The Spanish government has stated that it is holding discussions with the Moroccan government about repatriating the migrant workers via a "humanitarian corridor " but it's unclear how long the process will take.

Etymology

The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah (المملكة المغربية) may best be translated as "Kingdom of the West" although "the West" in Arabic is الغرب Al-Gharb. The name can also be translated as "kingdom of the evening". Medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá (المغرب الأقصى (meaning "the Farthest West") to distinguish it from neighbouring regions then called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ (المغرب الأوسط meaning "the Middle West") and al-Maghrib al-Adná (المغرب الأدنى meaning "the Nearest West"). The word "Morocco" is ultimately derived from the name of the city of Marrakesh which was its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and the Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed but it most likely comes from the Berber words amur (n) akush (ⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⴰⴽⵓⵛ) meaning "Land of God". The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc (in the Berber Latin script). In Turkish Morocco is known as Fas a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. However in other parts of the Islamic world for example in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature before the mid-20th century the name commonly used to refer to Morocco was Marrakesh (مراكش). That name is still used today in some languages including Persian Urdu and Punjabi. The English name "Morocco" is an anglicisation of the Spanish name for the country "Marruecos". That Spanish name was also the basis for the old Tuscan word for the country "Morrocco" from which the modern Italian word for the country "Marocco" is derived.

See also

Demographics

Populations (in thousands)
YearPop.±% p.a.
1950 8 986—    
1960 12 329+3.21%
1970 16 040+2.67%
1980 20 072+2.27%
1990 24 950+2.20%
2000 28 951+1.50%
2010 32 108+1.04%
2020 35 952+1.14%
Source:
Morocco has a population of around 36 029 093 inhabitants (2018 est.). According to the CIA 99% of residents are Arab-Berber. It is estimated that between 41% to 80% of residents have Berber ancestral origins. A sizeable portion of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnawa (or Gnaoua) West African or mixed race descendants of slaves and Moriscos European Muslims expelled from Spain and Portugal in the 17th century. According to the 2014 Morocco population census there were around 84 000 immigrants in the country. Of these foreign-born residents most were of French origin followed by individuals mainly from various nations in West Africa and Algeria. There are also a number of foreign residents of Spanish origin. Some of them are descendants of colonial settlers who primarily work for European multinational companies while others are married to Moroccans or are retirees. Prior to independence Morocco was home to half a million Europeans; who were mostly Christians. Also prior to independence Morocco was home to 250 000 Spaniards. Morocco's once prominent Jewish minority has decreased significantly since its peak of 265 000 in 1948 declining to around 2 500 today. Morocco has a large diaspora most of which is located in France which has reportedly over one million Moroccans of up to the third generation. There are also large Moroccan communities in Spain (about 700 000 Moroccans) the Netherlands (360 000) and Belgium (300 000). Other large communities can be found in Italy Canada the United States and Israel where Moroccan Jews are thought to constitute the second biggest Jewish ethnic subgroup. Religion The religious affiliation in the country was estimated by the Pew Forum in 2010 as 99% Muslim with all remaining groups accounting for less than 1% of the population. Despite Moroccans being affiliated with Islam almost 15% nonetheless describe themselves as non-religious according to a 2019 survey conducted for the BBC by the research network Arab Barometer. Christians are estimated at 1% (~380 000) of the Moroccan population. The predominantly Roman Catholic and Protestant foreign-resident Christian community consists of approximately 40 000 practising members. Most foreign resident Christians reside in the Casablanca Tangier and Rabat urban areas. Various local Christian leaders estimate that between 2005 and 2010 there are 5 000 citizen converted Christians (mostly ethnically Berber) who regularly attend "house" churches and live predominantly in the south. Some local Christian leaders estimate that there may be as many as 8 000 Christian citizens throughout the country but many reportedly do not meet regularly due to fear of government surveillance and social persecution. The number of the Moroccans who converted to Christianity (most of them secret worshippers) are estimated between 8 000 and 50 000. The most recent estimates put the size of the Casablanca Jewish community at about 2 500 and the Rabat and Marrakesh Jewish communities at about 100 members each. The remainder of the Jewish population is dispersed throughout the country. This population is mostly elderly with a decreasing number of young people. The Baháʼí Faith community located in urban areas numbers 350 to 400 persons. Languages Morocco's official languages are Arabic and Berber. The country's distinctive group of Moroccan Arabic dialects is referred to as Darija. Approximately 89.8% of the whole population can communicate to some degree in Moroccan Arabic. The Berber language is spoken in three dialects (Tarifit Tashelhit and Central Atlas Tamazight). In 2008 Frédéric Deroche estimated that there were 12 million Berber speakers making up about 40% of the population. The 2004 population census reported that 28.1% of the population spoke Berber. French is widely used in governmental institutions media mid-size and large companies international commerce with French-speaking countries and often in international diplomacy. French is taught as an obligatory language in all schools. In 2010 there were 10 366 000 French-speakers in Morocco or about 32% of the population. According to the 2004 census 2.19 million Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French. English while far behind French in terms of number of speakers is the first foreign language of choice since French is obligatory among educated youth and professionals. According to Ethnologue as of 2016 there are 1 536 590 individuals (or approximately 4.5% of the population) in Morocco who speak Spanish. Spanish is mostly spoken in northern Morocco and the Spanish Sahara because Spain had previously occupied those areas. A significant portion of northern Morocco receives Spanish media television signal and radio airwaves which reportedly facilitate competence in the language in the region. After Morocco declared independence in 1956 French and Arabic became the main languages of administration and education causing the role of Spanish to decline. According to a 2012 study by the Government of Spain 98% of Moroccans spoke Moroccan Arabic 63% spoke French 43% Amazigh 14% spoke English and 10% spoke Spanish.

Science and technology

The Moroccan government has been implementing reforms to improve the quality of education and make research more responsive to socio-economic needs. In May 2009 Morocco's prime minister Abbas El Fassi announced greater support for science during a meeting at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research. The aim was to give universities greater financial autonomy from the government to make them more responsive to research needs and better able to forge links with the private sector in the hope that this would nurture a culture of entrepreneurship in academia. He announced that investment in science and technology would rise from US$620 000 in 2008 to US$8.5 million (69 million Moroccan dirhams) in 2009 in order to finance the refurbishment and construction of laboratories training courses for researchers in financial management a scholarship programme for postgraduate research and incentive measures for companies prepared to finance research such as giving them access to scientific results that they could then use to develop new products. The Moroccan Innovation Strategy was launched at the country's first National Innovation Summit in June 2009 by the Ministry of Industry Commerce Investment and the Digital Economy. The Moroccan Innovation Strategy fixed the target of producing 1 000 Moroccan patents and creating 200 innovative start-ups by 2014. In 2012 Moroccan inventors applied for 197 patents up from 152 two years earlier. In 2011 the Ministry of Industry Commerce and New Technologies created a Moroccan Club of Innovation in partnership with the Moroccan Office of Industrial and Commercial Property. The idea is to create a network of players in innovation including researchers entrepreneurs students and academics to help them develop innovative projects. The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research is supporting research in advanced technologies and the development of innovative cities in Fez Rabat and Marrakesh. The government is encouraging public institutions to engage with citizens in innovation. One example is the Moroccan Phosphate Office (Office chérifien des phosphates) which has invested in a project to develop a smart city King Mohammed VI Green City around Mohammed VI University located between Casablanca and Marrakesh at a cost of DH 4.7 billion (circa US$479 million). As of 2015 Morocco had three technoparks. Since the first technopark was established in Rabat in 2005 a second has been set up in Casablanca followed in 2015 by a third in Tangers. The technoparks host start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises specializing in information and communication technologies (ICTs) 'green' technologies (namely environmentally friendly technologies) and cultural industries. In 2012 the Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology identified a number of sectors where Morocco has a comparative advantage and skilled human capital including mining fisheries food chemistry and new technologies. It also identified a number of strategic sectors such as energy with an emphasis on renewable energies such as photovoltaic thermal solar energy wind and biomass; as well as the water nutrition and health sectors the environment and geosciences. On 20 May 2015 less than a year after its inception the Higher Council for Education Training and Scientific Research presented a report to the king offering a Vision for Education in Morocco 2015–2030. The report advocated making education egalitarian and thus accessible to the greatest number. Since improving the quality of education goes hand in hand with promoting research and development the report also recommended developing an integrated national innovation system which would be financed by gradually increasing the share of GDP devoted to research and development (R&D) from 0.73% of GDP in 2010 ‘to 1% in the short term 1.5% by 2025 and 2% by 2030’.

Culture

Morocco is a country with a rich culture and civilisation. Through Moroccan history it has hosted many people coming from East (Phoenicians Jews and Arabs) South (Sub-Saharan Africans) and North (Romans Andalusians). All those civilisations have affected the social structure of Morocco. Since independence a veritable blossoming has taken place in painting and sculpture popular music amateur theatre and filmmaking. The Moroccan National Theatre (founded 1956) offers regular productions of Moroccan and French dramatic works. Art and music festivals take place throughout the country during the summer months among them the World Sacred Music Festival at Fès. Each region possesses its own specificities thus contributing to the national culture and to the legacy of civilization. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diverse legacy and the preservation of its cultural heritage.[citation needed] Culturally speaking Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and during the last decades the Anglo-American lifestyles. Architecture Literature Moroccan literature is written mostly in Arabic Berber Hebrew and French. Particularly under the Almoravid and Almohad empires Moroccan literature was closely related to the literature of al-Andalus and shared important poetic and literary forms such as zajal the muwashshah and the maqama. Islamic literature such as Quranic exegeses and other religious works such as Qadi Ayyad's Al-Shifa were influential. The University of al-Qarawiyyin in Fes was an important literary center attracting scholars from abroad including Maimonides Ibn al-Khatib and Ibn Khaldun. Under the Almohad dynasty Morocco experienced a period of prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad built the Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh which accommodated no fewer than 25 000 people but was also famed for its books manuscripts libraries and book shops which gave it its name; the first book bazaar in history. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. He founded a great library which was eventually carried to the Casbah and turned into a public library. Modern Moroccan literature began in the 1930s. Two main factors gave Morocco a pulse toward witnessing the birth of a modern literature. Morocco as a French and Spanish protectorate left Moroccan intellectuals the opportunity to exchange and to produce literary works freely enjoying the contact of other Arabic literature and Europe. Three generations of writers especially shaped 20th century Moroccan literature. The first was the generation that lived and wrote during the Protectorate (1912–56) its most important representative being Mohammed Ben Brahim (1897–1955). The second generation was the one that played an important role in the transition to independence with writers like Abdelkrim Ghallab (1919–2006) Allal al-Fassi (1910–1974) and Mohammed al-Mokhtar Soussi (1900–1963). The third generation is that of writers of the sixties. Moroccan literature then flourished with writers such as Mohamed Choukri Driss Chraïbi Mohamed Zafzaf and Driss El Khouri. Those writers were an important influence the many Moroccan novelists poets and playwrights that were still to come. During the 1950s and 1960s Morocco was a refuge and artistic centre and attracted writers as Paul Bowles Tennessee Williams and William S. Burroughs. Moroccan literature flourished with novelists such as Mohamed Zafzaf and Mohamed Choukri who wrote in Arabic and Driss Chraïbi and Tahar Ben Jelloun who wrote in French. Other important Moroccan authors include Abdellatif Laabi Abdelkrim Ghallab Fouad Laroui Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. Orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture be it in Moroccan Arabic or Berber. Music Moroccan music is of Arabic Berber and sub-Saharan origins. Rock-influenced chaabi bands are widespread as is trance music with historical origins in Islamic music. Morocco is home to Andalusian classical music that is found throughout Northwest Africa. It probably evolved under the Moors in Cordoba and the Persian-born musician Ziryab is usually credited with its invention. A genre known as Contemporary Andalusian Music and art is the brainchild of Morisco visual artist/composer/oudist Tarik Banzi founder of the Al-Andalus Ensemble. Aita is a Bedouin musical style sung in the countryside. Chaabi ("popular") is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets but is now found at any celebration or meeting. Popular Western forms of music are becoming increasingly popular in Morocco such as fusion rock country metal and in particular hip hop. Morocco participated in the 1980 Eurovision Song Contest where it finished in the penultimate position. Media Cinema in Morocco has a long history stretching back over a century to the filming of Le chevrier Marocain ("The Moroccan Goatherd") by Louis Lumière in 1897. Between that time and 1944 many foreign movies were shot in the country especially in the Ouarzazate area. In 1944 the Moroccan Cinematographic Center (CCM) the nation's film regulatory agency was established. Studios were also opened in Rabat. In 1952 Orson Welles' Othello won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival under the Moroccan flag. However the Festival's musicians did not play the Moroccan national anthem as no one in attendance knew what it was. Six years later Mohammed Ousfour would create the first Moroccan movie Le fils maudit ("The Damned Son"). In 1968 the first Mediterranean Film Festival was held in Tangier. In its current incarnation the event is held in Tetouan. This was followed in 1982 with the first national festival of cinema which was held in Rabat. In 2001 the first International Film Festival of Marrakech (FIFM) was also held in Marrakech. Cuisine Moroccan cuisine is considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world. This is a result of the centuries-long interaction of Morocco with the outside world. The cuisine of Morocco is mainly a fusion of Moorish European and Mediterranean cuisines. Spices are used extensively in Moroccan cuisine. While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years many ingredients such as saffron from Tiliouine mint and olives from Meknes and oranges and lemons from Fez are home-grown. Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred but is relatively expensive. The main Moroccan dish most people are familiar with is couscous the old national delicacy. Beef is the most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco usually eaten in a Tagine with vegetables or legumes. Chicken is also very commonly used in Tagines knowing that one of the most famous tagine is the Tagine of Chicken potatoes and olives. Lamb is also consumed but as Northwest African sheep breeds store most of their fat in their tails Moroccan lamb does not have the pungent flavour that Western lamb and mutton have. Poultry is also very common and the use of seafood is increasing in Moroccan food. In addition there are dried salted meats and salted preserved meats such as kliia/khlia and "g'did" which are used to flavor tagines or used in "el ghraif" a folded savory Moroccan pancake. Among the most famous Moroccan dishes are Couscous Pastilla (also spelled Bsteeya or Bestilla) Tajine Tanjia and Harira. Although the latter is a soup it is considered as a dish in itself and is served as such or with dates especially during the month of Ramadan. Pork consumption is forbidden in accordance with Sharia religious laws of Islam. A big part of the daily meal is bread. Bread in Morocco is principally from durum wheat semolina known as khobz. Bakeries are very common throughout Morocco and fresh bread is a staple in every city town and village. The most common is whole grain coarse ground or white flour bread. There are also a number of flat breads and pulled unleavened pan-fried breads. The most popular drink is "atai" green tea with mint leaves and other ingredients. Tea occupies a very important place in the culture of Morocco and is considered an art form. It is served not only at mealtimes but all through the day and it is especially a drink of hospitality commonly served whenever there are guests. It is served to guests and it is impolite to refuse it. Sport Football is the country's most popular sport popular among the urban youth in particular. In 1986 Morocco became the first Arab and African country to qualify for the second round of the FIFA World Cup. Morocco was originally scheduled to host the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations but refused to host the tournament on the scheduled dates because of fears over the ebola outbreak on the continent. Morocco made five attempts to host the FIFA World Cup but lost five times to United States France Germany South Africa and Canada/Mexico/United States. At the 1984 Olympic Games two Moroccans won gold medals in track and field. Nawal El Moutawakel won in the 400 metres hurdles; she was the first woman from an Arab or Islamic country to win an Olympic gold medal. Saïd Aouita won the 5000 metres at the same games. Hicham El Guerrouj won gold medals for Morocco at the 2004 Summer Olympics in the 1500 metres and 5000 metres and holds several world records in the mile run. Spectator sports in Morocco traditionally centered on the art of horsemanship until European sports—football polo swimming and tennis—were introduced at the end of the 19th century. Tennis and golf have become popular.[citation needed] Several Moroccan professional players have competed in international competition and the country fielded its first Davis Cup team in 1999. Morocco was one of the continent's pioneers in basketball as it established one of Africa's first competitive leagues. Rugby came to Morocco in the early 20th century mainly by the French who occupied the country. As a result Moroccan rugby was tied to the fortunes of France during the first and second World War with many Moroccan players going away to fight. Like many other Maghreb nations Moroccan rugby tended to look to Europe for inspiration rather than to the rest of Africa. Kickboxing is also popular in Morocco.[citation needed] The Moroccan-Dutch Badr Hari heavyweight kickboxer and martial artist is a former K-1 heavyweight champion and K-1 World Grand Prix 2008 and 2009 finalist.[citation needed]

Economy

Morocco's economy is considered a relatively liberal economy governed by the law of supply and demand. Since 1993 the country has followed a policy of privatisation of certain economic sectors which used to be in the hands of the government. Morocco has become a major player in African economic affairs and is the fifth largest economy in Africa by GDP (PPP). Morocco was ranked as the first African country by the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index ahead of South Africa.[citation needed] However in the years since that first-place ranking was given Morocco has slipped into fourth place behind Egypt. Government reforms and steady yearly growth in the region of 4–5% from 2000 to 2007 including 4.9% year-on-year growth in 2003–2007 helped the Moroccan economy to become much more robust compared to a few years earlier. For 2012 the World Bank forecast a rate of 4% growth for Morocco and 4.2% for following year 2013. The services sector accounts for just over half of GDP and industry made up of mining construction and manufacturing is an additional quarter. The industries that recorded the highest growth are tourism telecoms information technology and textile. Tourism Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Moroccan economy. It is well developed with a strong tourist industry focused on the country's coast culture and history. Morocco attracted more than 13 million tourists in 2019. Tourism is the second largest foreign exchange earner in Morocco after the phosphate industry. The Moroccan government is heavily investing in tourism development in 2010 the government launched its Vision 2020 which plans to make Morocco one of the top 20 tourist destinations in the world and to double the annual number of international arrivals to 20 million by 2020 with the hope that tourism will then have risen to 20% of GDP. Large government sponsored marketing campaigns to attract tourists advertised Morocco as a cheap and exotic yet safe place for tourists. Most of the visitors to Morocco continue to be European with French nationals making up almost 20% of all visitors. Most Europeans visit between April and August. Morocco's relatively high number of tourists has been aided by its location—Morocco is close to Europe and attracts visitors to its beaches. Because of its proximity to Spain tourists in southern Spain's coastal areas take one- to three-day trips to Morocco. Since air services between Morocco and Algeria have been established many Algerians have gone to Morocco to shop and visit family and friends. Morocco is relatively inexpensive because of the devaluation of the dirham and the increase of hotel prices in Spain. Morocco has an excellent road and rail infrastructure that links the major cities and tourist destinations with ports and cities with international airports. Low-cost airlines offer cheap flights to the country. Tourism is increasingly focused on Morocco's culture such as its ancient cities. The modern tourist industry capitalises on Morocco's ancient Berber Roman and Islamic sites and on its landscape and cultural history. 60% of Morocco's tourists visit for its culture and heritage. Agadir is a major coastal resort and has a third of all Moroccan bed nights. It is a base for tours to the Atlas Mountains. Other resorts in north Morocco are also very popular. Casablanca is the major cruise port in Morocco and has the best developed market for tourists in Morocco Marrakech in central Morocco is a popular tourist destination but is more popular among tourists for one- and two-day excursions that provide a taste of Morocco's history and culture. The Majorelle botanical garden in Marrakech is a popular tourist attraction. It was bought by the fashion designer Yves Saint-Laurent and Pierre Bergé in 1980. Their presence in the city helped to boost the city's profile as a tourist destination. As of 2006[update] activity and adventure tourism in the Atlas and Rif Mountains are the fastest growth area in Moroccan tourism. These locations have excellent walking and trekking opportunities from late March to mid-November. The government is investing in trekking circuits. They are also developing desert tourism in competition with Tunisia. Agriculture Infrastructure According to the Global Competitiveness Report of 2019 Morocco Ranked 32nd in the world in terms of Roads 16th in Sea 45th in Air and 64th in Railways. This gives Morocco the best infrastructure rankings in the African continent. Modern infrastructure development such as ports airports and rail links is a top government priority. To meet the growing domestic demand the Moroccan government invested more than $15 billion from 2010 to 2015 in upgrading its basic infrastructure. Morocco has one of the best road systems on the continent. Over the past 20 years the government has built approximately 1770 kilometers of modern roads connecting most major cities via toll expressways. The Moroccan Ministry of Equipment Transport Logistics and Water aims to build an additional 3380 kilometers of expressway and 2100 kilometers of highway by 2030 at an expected cost of $9.6 billion. While focusing on linking the southern provinces notably the cities of Laayoune and Dakhla to the rest of Morocco. In 2014 Morocco began the construction of the first high-speed railway system in Africa linking the cities of Tangiers and Casablanca. It was inaugurated in 2018 by the King following over a decade of planning and construction by Moroccan national railway company ONCF. It is the first phase of what is planned to eventually be a 1 500 kilometeres (930 mi) high-speed rail network in Morocco. An extension of the line to Marrakesh is already being planned. Morocco also has the largest port in Africa and the Mediterranean called Tanger-Med which is ranked the 18th in the world with a handling capacity of over 9 million containers. It is situated in the Tangiers free economic zone and serves as a logistics hub for Africa and the world. Energy In 2008 about 56% of Morocco's electricity supply was provided by coal. However as forecasts indicate that energy requirements in Morocco will rise 6% per year between 2012 and 2050 a new law passed encouraging Moroccans to look for ways to diversify the energy supply including more renewable resources. The Moroccan government has launched a project to build a solar thermal energy power plant and is also looking into the use of natural gas as a potential source of revenue for Morocco's government. Morocco has embarked upon the construction of large solar energy farms to lessen dependence on fossil fuels and to eventually export electricity to Europe. Narcotics Since the 7th century Cannabis has been cultivated in the Rif Region. In 2004 according to the UN World Drugs Report cultivation and transformation of cannabis represents 0.57% of the national GDP of Morocco in 2002. According to a French Ministry of the Interior 2006 report 80% of the cannabis resin (hashish) consumed in Europe comes from the Rif region in Morocco which is mostly mountainous terrain in the north of Morocco also hosting plains that are very fertile and expanding from Melwiyya River and Ras Kebdana in the East to Tangier and Cape Spartel in the West. Also the region extends from the Mediterranean in the south home of the Wergha River to the north. In addition to that Morocco is a transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe. Water supply and sanitation Water supply and sanitation in Morocco is provided by a wide array of utilities. They range from private companies in the largest city Casablanca the capital Rabat and two other cities [clarification needed] to public municipal utilities in 13 other cities as well as a national electricity and water company (ONEE). The latter is in charge of bulk water supply to the aforementioned utilities water distribution in about 500 small towns as well as sewerage and wastewater treatment in 60 of these towns. There have been substantial improvements in access to water supply and to a lesser extent to sanitation over the past fifteen years. Remaining challenges include a low level of wastewater treatment (only 13% of collected wastewater is being treated) lack of house connections in the poorest urban neighbourhoods and limited sustainability of rural systems (20 percent of rural systems are estimated not to function). In 2005 a National Sanitation Program was approved that aims at treating 60% of collected wastewater and connecting 80% of urban households to sewers by 2020. The issue of lack of water connections for some of the urban poor is being addressed as part of the National Human Development Initiative under which residents of informal settlements have received land titles and have fees waived that are normally paid to utilities in order to connect to the water and sewer network.

Geography

Morocco has a coast by the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with three small Spanish-controlled exclaves Ceuta Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera) Algeria to the east and Western Sahara to the south. Since Morocco controls most of Western Sahara its de facto southern boundary is with Mauritania. The internationally recognised borders of the country lie between latitudes 27° and 36°N and longitudes 1° and 14°W. Adding Western Sahara Morocco lies mostly between 21° and 36°N and 1° and 17°W (the Ras Nouadhibou peninsula is slightly south of 21° and west of 17°). The geography of Morocco spans from the Atlantic Ocean to mountainous areas to the Sahara desert. Morocco is a Northern African country bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea between Algeria and the annexed Western Sahara. It is one of only three nations (along with Spain and France) to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. A large part of Morocco is mountainous. The Atlas Mountains are located mainly in the centre and the south of the country. The Rif Mountains are located in the north of the country. Both ranges are mainly inhabited by the Berber people. At 446 550 km2 (172 414 sq mi) Morocco excluding Western Sahara is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world. Algeria borders Morocco to the east and southeast though the border between the two countries has been closed since 1994. Spanish territory in Northwest Africa neighbouring Morocco comprises five enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta Melilla Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera Peñón de Alhucemas the Chafarinas islands and the disputed islet Perejil. Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. To the north Morocco is bordered by the Strait of Gibraltar where international shipping has unimpeded transit passage between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. The Rif mountains stretch over the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east. The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country from the northeast to the southwest. Most of the southeast portion of the country is in the Sahara Desert and as such is generally sparsely populated and unproductive economically. Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains while to the south lies the Western Sahara a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March). Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces. Morocco's capital city is Rabat; its largest city is its main port Casablanca. Other cities recording a population over 500 000 in the 2014 Moroccan census are Fes Marrakesh Meknes Salé and Tangier. Morocco is represented in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 geographical encoding standard by the symbol MA. This code was used as the basis for Morocco's internet domain .ma. Climate The country's Mediterranean climate is similar to that of southern California with lush forests in the northern and central mountain ranges of the country giving way to drier conditions and inland deserts further southeast. The Moroccan coastal plains experience remarkably moderate temperatures even in summer owing to the effect of the cold Canary Current off its Atlantic coast. In the Rif Middle and High Atlas Mountains there exist several different types of climates: Mediterranean along the coastal lowlands giving way to a humid temperate climate at higher elevations with sufficient moisture to allow for the growth of different species of oaks moss carpets junipers and Atlantic fir which is a royal conifer tree endemic to Morocco. In the valleys fertile soils and high precipitation allow for the growth of thick and lush forests. Cloud forests can be found in the west of the Rif Mountains and Middle Atlas Mountains. At higher elevations the climate becomes alpine in character and can sustain ski resorts. Southeast of the Atlas mountains near the Algerian borders the climate becomes very dry with long and hot summers. Extreme heat and low moisture levels are especially pronounced in the lowland regions east of the Atlas range due to the rain shadow effect of the mountain system. The southeasternmost portions of Morocco are very hot and include portions of the Sahara Desert where vast swathes of sand dunes and rocky plains are dotted with lush oases. In contrast to the Sahara region in the south coastal plains are fertile in the central and northern regions of the country and comprise the backbone of the country's agriculture in which 95% of the population live. The direct exposure to the North Atlantic Ocean the proximity to mainland Europe and the long stretched Rif and Atlas mountains are the factors of the rather European-like climate in the northern half of the country. That makes Morocco a country of contrasts. Forested areas cover about 12% of the country while arable land accounts for 18%. Approximately 5% of Moroccan land is irrigated for agricultural use. In general apart from the southeast regions (pre-Saharan and desert areas) Morocco's climate and geography are very similar to the Iberian peninsula. Thus Morocco has the following climate zones: Mediterranean: Dominates the coastal Mediterranean regions of the country along the (500 km strip) and some parts of the Atlantic coast. Summers are hot to moderately hot and dry average highs are between 29 °C (84.2 °F) and 32 °C (89.6 °F). Winters are generally mild and wet daily average temperatures hover around 9 °C (48.2 °F) to 11 °C (51.8 °F) and average low are around 5 °C (41.0 °F) to 8 °C (46.4 °F) typical to the coastal areas of the west Mediterranean. Annual Precipitation in this area vary from 600 to 800 mm in the west to 350–500 mm in the east. Notable cities that fall into this zone are Tangier Tetouan Al Hoceima Nador and Safi. Sub-Mediterranean: It influences cities that show Mediterranean characteristics but remain fairly influenced by other climates owing to their either relative elevation or direct exposure to the North Atlantic Ocean. We thus have two main influencing climates: Oceanic: Determined by the cooler summers where highs are around 27 °C (80.6 °F) and in terms of the Essaouira region are almost always around 21 °C (69.8 °F). The medium daily temperatures can get as low as 19 °C (66.2 °F) while winters are chilly to mild and wet. Annual precipitation varies from 400 to 700 mm. Notable cities that fall into this zone are Rabat Casablanca Kénitra Salé and Essaouira. Continental: Determined by the bigger gap between highs and lows that results in hotter summers and colder winters than found in typical Mediterranean zones. In summer daily highs can get as high as 40 °C (104.0 °F) during heat waves but usually are between 32 °C (89.6 °F) and 36 °C (96.8 °F). However temperatures drop as the sun sets. Night temperatures usually fall below 20 °C (68.0 °F) and sometimes as low as 10 °C (50.0 °F) in mid-summer. Winters are cooler and can get below the freezing point multiple times between December and February. Also snow can fall occasionally. Fès for example registered −8 °C (17.6 °F) in winter 2005. Annual precipitation varies between 500 and 900 mm. Notable cities are Fès Meknès Chefchaouen Beni-Mellal and Taza. Continental: Dominates the mountainous regions of the north and central parts of the country where summers are hot to very hot with highs between 32 °C (89.6 °F) and 36 °C (96.8 °F). Winters on the other hand are cold and lows usually go beyond the freezing point. And when cold damp air comes to Morocco from the northwest for a few days temperatures sometimes get below −5 °C (23.0 °F). It often snows abundantly in this part of the country. Precipitation varies between 400 and 800 mm. Notable cities are Khenifra Imilchil Midelt and Azilal. Alpine: Found in some parts of the Middle Atlas Mountain range and the eastern part of the High Atlas Mountain range. Summers are very warm to moderately hot and winters are longer cold and snowy. Precipitation varies between 400 and 1200 mm. In summer highs barely go above 30 °C (86.0 °F) and lows are cool and average below 15 °C (59.0 °F). In winters highs average around 8 °C (46.4 °F) and lows go well below the freezing point. In this part of country there are many ski resorts such as Oukaimeden and Mischliefen. Notable cities are Ifrane Azrou and Boulmane. Semi-arid: This type of climate is found in the south of the country and some parts of the east of the country where rainfall is lower and annual precipitations are between 200 and 350 mm. However one usually finds Mediterranean characteristics in those regions such as the precipitation pattern and thermal attributes. Notable cities are Agadir Marrakesh and Oujda. South of Agadir and east of Jerada near the Algerian borders arid and desert climate starts to prevail. Due to Morocco's proximity to the Sahara desert and the North Sea of the Atlantic Ocean two phenomena occur to influence the regional seasonal temperatures either by raising temperatures by 7–8 degrees Celsius when sirocco blows from the east creating heatwaves or by lowering temperatures by 7–8 degrees Celsius when cold damp air blows from the northwest creating a coldwave or cold spell. However these phenomena do not last for more than two to five days on average. Countries or regions that share the same climatic characteristics with Morocco are the state of California (USA) Portugal Spain and Algeria. Climate change is expected to significantly impact Morocco on multiple dimensions. As a coastal country with hot and arid climates environmental impacts are likely to be wide and varied. As of the 2019 Climate Change Performance Index Morocco was ranked second in preparedness behind Sweden. Biodiversity Morocco has a wide range of biodiversity. It is part of the Mediterranean basin an area with exceptional concentrations of endemic species undergoing rapid rates of habitat loss and is therefore considered to be a hotspot for conservation priority. Avifauna are notably variant. The avifauna of Morocco includes a total of 454 species five of which have been introduced by humans and 156 are rarely or accidentally seen. The Barbary lion hunted to extinction in the wild was a subspecies native to Morocco and is a national emblem. The last Barbary lion in the wild was shot in the Atlas Mountains in 1922. The other two primary predators of northern Africa the Atlas bear and Barbary leopard are now extinct and critically endangered respectively. Relict populations of the West African crocodile persisted in the Draa river until the 20th century. The Barbary macaque a primate endemic to Morocco and Algeria is also facing extinction due to offtake for trade human interruption urbanisation wood and real estate expansion that diminish forested area – the macaque's habitat. Trade of animals and plants for food pets medicinal purposes souvenirs and photo props is common across Morocco despite laws making much of it illegal. This trade is unregulated and causing unknown reductions of wild populations of native Moroccan wildlife. Because of the proximity of northern Morocco to Europe species such as cacti tortoises mammal skins and high-value birds (falcons and bustards) are harvested in various parts of the country and exported in appreciable quantities with especially large volumes of eel harvested – 60 tons exported to the Far East in the period 2009‒2011. Morocco is home to six terrestrial ecoregions: Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Mediterranean woodlands and forests and North Saharan steppe and woodlands. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.74/10 ranking it 66th globally out of 172 countries.

History

Prehistory and antiquity The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since at least Paleolithic times beginning sometime between 190 000 and 90 000 BC. A recent publication has suggested that there is evidence for even earlier human habitation of the area: Homo sapiens fossils that had been discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were recently dated to roughly 315 000 years ago. During the Upper Paleolithic the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today resembling a savanna in contrast to its modern arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago the pre-existing Aterian culture was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the human remains found at Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burial sites and European Cro-Magnon remains. The Iberomaurusian culture was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered a close ancestral link between Berbers and the Saami of Scandinavia. This evidence supports the theory that some of the peoples who had been living in the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe during the late-glacial period migrated to northern Europe contributing to its repopulation after the last ice age. In the early part of the Classical Antiquity period Northwest Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians who established trading colonies and settlements there the most substantial of which were Chellah Lixus and Mogador. Mogador was established as a Phoenician colony as early as the 6th century BC. [page needed] Morocco later became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancient Carthage and part of the Carthaginian empire. The earliest known independent Moroccan state was the Berber kingdom of Mauretania under King Baga. This ancient kingdom (not to be confused with the modern state of Mauritania) flourished around 225 BC or earlier. Mauretania became a client kingdom of the Roman Empire in 33 BC. Emperor Claudius annexed Mauretania directly in 44 AD making it a Roman province ruled by an imperial governor (either a procurator Augusti or a legatus Augusti pro praetore). During the so-called "crisis of the 3rd century " parts of Mauretania were reconquered by Berber tribes. As a result by the late 3rd century direct Roman rule had become confined to a few coastal cities such as Septum (Ceuta) in Mauretania Tingitana and Cherchell in Mauretania Caesariensis. When in 429 AD the area was devastated by the Vandals the Roman Empire lost its remaining possessions in Mauretania and local Mauro-Roman kings assumed control of them. In the 530s the Eastern Roman Empire under Byzantine control re-established direct imperial rule of Septum and Tingi fortified Tingis and erected a church. Foundation and early Islamic era The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb which started in the middle of the 7th century was achieved by the Umayyad Caliphate early into the following century. It brought both the Arabic language and Islam to the area. Although part of the larger Islamic Empire Morocco was initially organized as a subsidiary province of Ifriqiya with the local governors appointed by the Muslim gove

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